Cheeses by Type of Milk is broken down into five
categories. You will not find all cow milk cheeses noted in our 'Cow's
Milk Cheese' listings, since cow's milk makes up the majority of all
cheeses. Cheese milk types are: cow's milk,
goat's milk, sheep's milk, buffalo milk and mixed milk. The cheeses are
not separated by countries on this page, but simply by the milk types.
This process simply takes you to the type of cheese by milk kind that
you are interested in. Click on a link of your choice for more
Pasteurized and Raw Milk Cheese Information
Milk that is heated to 145 degrees F for a period of 30 minutes, or to
161 degrees F for 15 seconds, and is then rapidly cooled, is referred to
as Pasteurized milk and is considered to be free of pathogens [US Code
of Federal Regulations].
Current US law requires that all domestic or imported cheeses must
either be made from pasteurized milk or be held at 35 degrees F for a
minimum of 60 days before it can be sold.
Making cheese from the milk of just one species of animal, even when all
the animals are fed the same, can result in variations in quality;
especially when raw milk is used. And, making cheese from just one
species, where some of the animals have been nourished on one type of
feed and others have been fed another variety, can introduce still more
variables into the cheese equation. These desirable variables are
virtually eliminated when the cheese maker uses pasteurized milk.
Make Cheese with Raw Milk?
For thousands of years, cheese has been made from raw milk. It was only
in the mid 1800s that the French scientist, Louis Pasteur, discovered
how to preserve beer and wine through a heating process. In 1907, the
Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, associated with the
University of Wisconsin, and in collaboration with the USDA, began
research on using pasteurization in cheese making.
This is the milk collected directly from the animal and which contains
natural floras that are both useful and harmful to man. Some of the
harmful pathogens, in non-pasteurized milk, can cause diseases such as
brucellosis, tuberculosis and undulant fever. Often, cheeses made from
raw milk are aged in excess of 60 days to avoid the transfer of such
pathogens to man. Such aged cheeses are considered to be free of
pathogens [US Code of Federal Regulations]. These cheeses have much more
flavor than those made with pasteurized milk.
The United States FDA restricts the importation, into the U.S., of all
cheese that is made from raw milk and has not been aged, at a
temperature of 35 degrees F for a minimum of 60 days. It also forbids
the sale of any raw milk cheese that has not been properly matured for
the prerequisite 60 days.
The FDA recognizes, based upon extensive experience and testing that,
when cheese is correctly matured over a period of 60 days, the micro
flora that are a natural constituent of raw milk, eradicate all the
pathogens in the cheese; consequently,
cheese made from raw milk
that has been properly aged, may be safely sold in the United States.
There is also universal recognition that
cheese made from raw milk contains a higher complexity of taste and
aroma. The effect of the flavor-inducing feeds, together with that of
selectively bread milk giving animals, is not boiled away. Rather, it
remains in the milk to enhance the favorable richness of the cheese.
The pros and cons of pasteurized
verses raw milk, and the pros and cons of
pasteurization are as follows:
a. Results in increased consistency [uniform quality] between
cheeses from a particular cheese maker;
b. Allows for the use of lower quality milk;
a. Lower flavor levels due to the elimination of 90% of all micro
flora in the milk;
b. Retards the cheese ripening process;
c. Makes it difficult to produce a cheese with depth and
complexity of flavor.
prefer cheese made from raw milk:
You will notice that many of our cheeses, both domestic and European,
are made with raw milk.
It is up to the cheese maker to blend
together his/her ‘feel’ for making cheese with the results of the latest
scientific findings about milk and cheese. The cheese maker, in many
cases, must understand the basic differences between the milk of various
animals such as cows, goats, sheep and buffalo. This is because there
are many cheeses that are made from some combination of these milks. He
or she must know the fat, protein, milk sugar and mineral contents of
these milks and their effects upon the finished product.
Milk contains small globules of fat, the size of which depends upon,
among other things, the type of animal that produced the milk, the type
of feed and the animal’s breeding. The fat is an important ingredient
in the determination of the cheese’s aroma, body and flavor. Cheese
made from skim milk, which is entirely devoid of fat, lacks flavor and
interesting body and texture. However, when as little as 1% fat is
added, a background flavor is produced.
gourmet cheese from raw milk is a challenge that the Master Fromager
enjoys. And, this is the type of cheese we most enjoy eating and
selling. Raw milk cheeses are enjoyably different from those made with
pasteurized milk. Try them for a really exceptional gourmet
experience. Bon appétit!